The major intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment included: Bacon and Galileo




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The major intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment included:

  • Bacon and Galileo

  • Newton and Galileo

  • Newton and Locke

  • Descartes and Bacon


The major intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment included:

  • Bacon and Galileo

  • Newton and Galileo

  • Newton and Locke

  • Descartes and Bacon



EXPLANATION: The major intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment included:

  • Newton and Locke

  • Isaac Newton (1642–1727) and John Locke (1632–1704) were the major intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment.



The philosophes sought to apply reason to:

  • economics

  • religion

  • society

  • All of the above



The philosophes sought to apply reason to:

  • economics

  • religion

  • society

  • All of the above



EXPLANATION: The philosophes sought to apply reason to:

  • All of the above

  • The writers and critics who flourished in the expanding print culture and who took the lead in forging the new attitudes favorable to change, championed reform, and advocated toleration were known as the philosophes. Not usually philosophers in a formal sense, these figures sought rather to apply the rules of reason, criticism, and common sense to nearly all the major institutions, economic practices, and exclusivist religious policies of the day.



Many philosophes believed in a “rational” version of religion known as:

  • scientific Christianity

  • deism

  • agnosticism

  • anti-mysticism



Many philosophes believed in a “rational” version of religion known as:

  • scientific Christianity

  • deism

  • agnosticism

  • anti-mysticism



EXPLANATION: Many philosophes believed in a “rational” version of religion known as:

  • deism

  • The philosophes did not oppose all religion. What the philosophes sought, however, was religion without fanaticism and intolerance. The Newtonian worldview had convinced many writers that nature was rational. Therefore, the God who had created nature must also be rational, and the religion through which that God was worshiped should be rational. Most of them believed the life of religion and of reason could be combined, giving rise to a set of ideas known as deism.



David Hume doubted the existence of:

  • social vices

  • social virtues

  • reason

  • miracles



David Hume doubted the existence of:

  • social vices

  • social virtues

  • reason

  • miracles



EXPLANATION: David Hume doubted the existence of:

  • miracles

  • The Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711–1776), argued in “Of Miracles,” a chapter in his Inquiry into Human Nature (1748), that no empirical evidence supported the belief in divine miracles central to much of Christianity. For Hume, the greatest miracle was that people believed in miracles.



Moses Mendelsohn argued for:

  • the equality of men and women

  • the need for Jews to stay out of Christian society

  • religious toleration

  • the equality of all races



Moses Mendelsohn argued for:

  • the equality of men and women

  • the need for Jews to stay out of Christian society

  • religious toleration

  • the equality of all races



EXPLANATION: Moses Mendelsohn argued for:

  • religious toleration

  • Moses Mendelsohn, the leading Jewish philosopher of the eighteenth century, was known as the “Jewish Socrates.” Mendelsohn’s most influential work was Jerusalem; or, On Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism (1783) in which he argued both for extensive religious toleration.



French economic reformers were known as:

  • philosophes

  • physiocrats

  • Smithites

  • technocrats



French economic reformers were known as:

  • philosophes

  • physiocrats

  • Smithites

  • technocrats



EXPLANATION: French economic reformers were known as:

  • physiocrats

  • In France economic reformers were called the physiocrats. Their leading spokespeople were François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Pierre Dupont de Nemours (1739–1817).



Who wrote The Social Contract?

  • Spinoza

  • Rousseau

  • Voltaire

  • Diderot



Who wrote The Social Contract?

  • Spinoza

  • Rousseau

  • Voltaire

  • Diderot



EXPLANATION: Who wrote The Social Contract?

  • Rousseau

  • Rousseau raised the more fundamental question of what constitutes the good life. This question has haunted European social thought ever since the eighteenth century. Rousseau carried these same concerns into his political thought. His most extensive discussion of politics appeared in The Social Contract (1762). Although the book attracted little immediate attention, by the end of the century it was widely read in France.



Rousseau believed that men and women:

  • should inhabit separate spheres

  • were equal in all things

  • should receive the same education

  • were different species



Rousseau believed that men and women:

  • should inhabit separate spheres

  • were equal in all things

  • should receive the same education

  • were different species



EXPLANATION: Rousseau believed that men and women:

  • should inhabit separate spheres

  • Rousseau published Émile, a novel about education, in 1762. In it, he made one of the strongest and most influential arguments of the eighteenth century for distinct social roles for men and women. Furthermore, he portrayed women as fundamentally subordinate to men.



Mary Wollstonecraft believed that women were:

  • unsuited to advanced education

  • unsuited for politics

  • victims of the tyranny of men

  • the key instigators of the French Revolution



Mary Wollstonecraft believed that women were:

  • unsuited to advanced education

  • unsuited for politics

  • victims of the tyranny of men

  • the key instigators of the French Revolution



EXPLANATION: Mary Wollstonecraft believed that women were:

  • victims of the tyranny of men

  • Wollstonecraft accused Rousseau and others after him who upheld traditional roles for women of attempting to narrow women’s vision and limit their experience. She argued that to confine women to the separate domestic sphere because of supposed limitations of their physiology was to make them the sensual slaves of men. Confined in this separate sphere, they were the victims of male tyranny.



Rococo architecture and decoration originated in:

  • eighteenth-century Italy

  • sixteenth-century Spain

  • late seventeenth-century Britain

  • early eighteenth-century France



Rococo architecture and decoration originated in:

  • eighteenth-century Italy

  • sixteenth-century Spain

  • late seventeenth-century Britain

  • early eighteenth-century France



EXPLANATION: Rococo architecture and decoration originated in:

  • early eighteenth-century France

  • Rococo architecture and decoration originated in early eighteenth-century There, wealthy French aristocrats built houses known as hôtels. Their designers compensated for the relatively small scale and nondescript exteriors of these mansions with interiors that were elaborately decorated and painted in light colors to make the rooms seem brighter and more spacious.



Rococo painting often depicted the aristocracy:

  • as paragons of virtue

  • as heroes

  • at play

  • as figures of justice and mercy



Rococo painting often depicted the aristocracy:

  • as paragons of virtue

  • as heroes

  • at play

  • as figures of justice and mercy



EXPLANATION: Rococo painting often depicted the aristocracy:

  • at play

  • The paintings associated with Rococo art often portrayed the aristocracy, and particularly the French aristocracy, at play. Artists depicted what were known as fêtes galantes or scenes of elegant parties in lush gardens. The paintings showed not reality, but an idealized landscape with carefree men and women pursuing a life of leisure, romance, and seduction.



The popularity of travel to Rome contributed to the rise of:

  • Neoclassicism

  • Rococo

  • Realism

  • Romanticism



The popularity of travel to Rome contributed to the rise of:

  • Neoclassicism

  • Rococo

  • Realism

  • Romanticism



EXPLANATION: The popularity of travel to Rome contributed to the rise of:

  • Neoclassicism

  • The popularity of the city of Rome as a destination for artists and aristocratic tourists contributed to the rise of Neoclassicism. European aristocrats who came to Italy in the mid-eighteenth century on what was called “the Grand Tour” increasingly admired both the ancient and Renaissance art that was on view there and the Neoclassical works that contemporary artists were producing there.



Most philosophes favored:

  • democracy

  • monarchy

  • oligarchy

  • anarchy



Most philosophes favored:

  • democracy

  • monarchy

  • oligarchy

  • anarchy



EXPLANATION: Most philosophes favored:

  • monarchy

  • Most of the philosophes favored neither Montesquieu’s reformed and revived aristocracy nor Rousseau’s democracy as a solution to contemporary political problems. Like other thoughtful people of the day in other stations and occupations, they looked to the existing monarchies.



Monarchs associated with enlightened absolutism include all of the following EXCEPT:

  • Frederick II

  • Louis XV

  • Catherine the Great

  • Joseph II



Monarchs associated with enlightened absolutism include all of the following EXCEPT:

  • Frederick II

  • Louis XV

  • Catherine the Great

  • Joseph II



EXPLANATION: Monarchs associated with enlightened absolutism include all of the following EXCEPT:

  • Louis XV

  • During the last third of the century, some observers believed that several European rulers had embraced many of the reforms the philosophes advocated. Historians use the term enlightened absolutism for this form of monarchical government. The monarchs most closely associated with it are Frederick II (r. 1740–1786) of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria (r. 1765–1790), and Catherine II (r. 1762–1796) of Russia.



All of the following participated in the 1772 partition of Poland EXCEPT:

  • Austria

  • Russia

  • Prussia

  • Hungary



All of the following participated in the 1772 partition of Poland EXCEPT:

  • Austria

  • Russia

  • Prussia

  • Hungary



EXPLANATION: All of the following participated in the 1772 partition of Poland EXCEPT:

  • Hungary

  • After long, complicated secret negotiations, Russia agreed to abandon the conquered Danubian provinces. In compensation, it received a large portion of Polish territory with almost 2 million inhabitants. As a reward for remaining neutral, Prussia annexed most of the territory between East Prussia and Prussia proper. This land allowed Frederick to unite two previously separate sections of his realm. Finally, Austria took Galicia in southern Poland, with its important salt mines, and other Polish territory with more than 2.5 million inhabitants.



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