Kirk Simmons, Executive Director, International Affairs, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, usa




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TitleKirk Simmons, Executive Director, International Affairs, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, usa
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Kirk Simmons, Executive Director, International Affairs, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

  • Kirk Simmons, Executive Director, International Affairs, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

  • Betty Soppelsa, Deputy Executive Director for Conference Planning, NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Washington, D.C., USA

  • Linda Tobash, Director University Placement Services, Institute of International Education, New York, NY, USA

  • Leonard van der Hout, Head International Affairs, Hogeschool van Amsterdam University of Applied Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands



  • Goal

  • Examine the U.S. higher education community’s evolving understanding of and reactions to the Bologna Process.



We will discuss

  • We will discuss

  • role that EHEA countries play in U.S. higher education,

  • evolution in knowledge of and trends in reactions to EHEA reforms,

  • challenges and opportunities that exist , and

  • evolving treatment of EHEA Bologna-compliant three-year degrees, identifying key decision-makers.





EHEA encompasses 46 countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA)

  • EHEA encompasses 46 countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA)







Sponsor transatlantic membership task forces

  • Sponsor transatlantic membership task forces

  • Co-hosted Amsterdam Symposium in 2007

  • Produced International Educator Bologna Process Supplement

  • Conducts annual trainings at NAFSA annual and regional conferences

  • Hosts webinars and a comprehensive informative Bologna Special Focus website with discussion forum





Limited U.S. audience

  • Limited U.S. audience

  • What is Bologna?

  • ‘Wait and see’ attitude

  • Imperfect and simplistic understanding

  • Viewed Europe as adopting a U.S. model of tertiary education

  • Saw Bologna as a product rather than a process

  • Assumed transatlantic mobility would increase with ease of credit transfer and compatibility of academic cycles

  • North-South issues not readily perceived



Additional constituents join discussion

  • Additional constituents join discussion

  • Graduate school deans

  • International education administrators

  • Study abroad professionals

  • Faculty

  • Students



Increase in fundamental information

  • Increase in fundamental information

  • Growing understanding that Bologna is a complex process with moving targets

  • Greater understanding that variations will exist

  • Beginning to understand challenges within Europe

  • Near-term complications in the admission of European students to U.S. institutions



Greater understanding of differences

  • Greater understanding of differences

  • Learner-centered and outcomes-based assessment

  • Tools to assess learning and progress

  • Qualification frameworks



  • European Attractiveness as a Study Destination

  • Innovative, multilateral academic exchange

  • Attractive research components

  • Growth in number of programs offered in English

  • Shorter time to degree

  • Cost

  • Promotion of educational and employment mobility within Europe



EHEA reforms advancing a global discussion

  • EHEA reforms advancing a global discussion

  • Model for other national systems

    • Systems traditionally modeled on European frameworks
    • China a keen observer
    • Latin American countries exhibit great interest in Bologna and Tuning Project outcomes




Shared desire to work cooperatively with other institutions internationally

  • Shared desire to work cooperatively with other institutions internationally

  • Increased efforts for collaborative programming

    • Development of U.S. short-term study opportunities for first cycle, bachelor’s level, European students
    • Increase in dual and joint graduate degrees to ensure continued trans-Atlantic mobility


Worldwide challenge to the status quo in higher education

  • Worldwide challenge to the status quo in higher education

  • Stimulated much debate within the U.S. pertaining to length of undergraduate degrees and generated a movement towards the acceptance of three-year degrees beyond the European Community

  • Provided opportunities for proactive international partnering at the graduate level

  • Potential for Bologna to drive the establishment of new worldwide standards of quality assurance and workforce development.







Traditional focus on degree ‘equivalency’ frequently determined by

  • Traditional focus on degree ‘equivalency’ frequently determined by

    • length of undergraduate program
    • combination of secondary and post-secondary study
  • Discussion moving from degree ‘equivalency’ and degree ‘comparability’ to degree ‘compatibility’ and preparation





Have an official policy regarding 3-year Bologna –compliant degrees

  • Have an official policy regarding 3-year Bologna –compliant degrees

    • 53.4% yes
    • 46.6% no


Have an official policy regarding 3-year Bologna –compliant degrees

  • Have an official policy regarding 3-year Bologna –compliant degrees

    • 53.4% yes
    • 46.6% no








Clear guides on quality assurance mechanisms in EHEA countries

  • Clear guides on quality assurance mechanisms in EHEA countries

  • Greater consistency across national systems in using tools

  • An interim report prior to graduation, that includes program, courses, grades and ECTS

  • More information on where a given country is in terms of implementation and status of traditional vs. Bologna-compliant programs

  • Anxious for rational models and information on types of degrees/programs that lead to further study within a national system and across the EHEA system

  • Anxious for information on practices of other U.S. institutions with a similar profile to the own.







Challenges

  • Challenges

  • Aging Population

  • Globalisation



Answers

  • Answers

  • Lifelong Learning

  • Widening Participation

  • Student-centered Learning

  • Quality Assurance

  • Further Internationalising

  • Development of NQF by 2012

  • Mobility 20% by 2020





46 Bologna countries and 15 others (including the U.S.A.)

  • 46 Bologna countries and 15 others (including the U.S.A.)

  • Result: Identified common ground and new appointment in 2010



American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) – information on credential evaluation -- www.aacrao.org

  • American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) – information on credential evaluation -- www.aacrao.org

  • Publication: The Impact of Bologna and Three-year Degrees on U.S. Admissions

  • Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) – www.cgsnet.org

  • Information grad enrollments & trends: http://www.cgsnet.org/VirtualCenterResearch/index.htm

  • Information on international activities

      • http://www.cgsnet.org/Default.aspx?tabid=344
  • Institute of International Education (IIE) – www.iie.org

  • Open Doors Annual Report on international student mobility trends

  • http://opendoors.iienetwork.org

  • White paper series on Study Abroad

      • http://www.iie.org//Template.cfm?Section=Study_abroad_white_papers
  • Lumina Foundation – www.luminafoundation.org

  • Turning USA Project http://www.luminafoundation.org/newsroom/news_releases/2009-04-08.html

  • NAFSA: Association of International Educators— www.nafsa.org

  • Discussion Forum and Resources - www.nafsa.org/bologna



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