World History: wwi to Modern Day Roots of wwi




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TitleWorld History: wwi to Modern Day Roots of wwi
Date03.05.2013
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World History: WWI to Modern Day


Roots of WWI

  • World War I

    • “The Great War”
  • Nationalism- loyalty to one’s country

  • The Balkans

    • Ethnic groups launching revolutions against the Ottoman Empire
    • Some annexed by Austria-Hungary
    • Poland v. Russia
    • Ireland v. Britain


Roots of WWI

  • Militarism

    • Countries began building up their militaries to intimidate others
  • Alliances

    • Agreements between nations to help each other in case of war


The War Begins

  • June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist

    • Austria-Hungarian/German alliance
    • Serbian/Russian alliance
  • Triple Entente

    • Great Britain, France, Russia
  • Central Powers

    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire




The War Front

  • Weapons

    • Machine guns
    • Poison gasses
    • Tanks and airplanes
  • Stalemate develops

  • Trench warfare

    • Dirty ditches
    • “no man’s land” in between




The End and Aftermath

  • 1917- the US enters the war

  • 1918- the war ends when Germany is defeated

    • 20 million Europeans dead
  • President Wilson wanted peace but the allies wanted to punish Germany

  • Treaty of Versailles

    • Forced Germany to accept blame
    • Germany to pay reparations ($)
  • Hapsburg Dynasty (ruling European family) fell

  • Ottoman Empire- no longer existed



The Aftermath

  • Allies redrew national borders to benefit themselves

  • New countries created causing conflict

  • Promised independence to Arab nations but went back on their word

    • Mandate system
  • Germans left resentful

  • Laid the path for WWII





League of Nations

  • President Wilson proposed it

  • Was meant to provide a place where countries could peacefully discuss solutions

  • Many countries joined but no the USA

  • Could not enforce anything



Russian Revolution

  • Czar Nicholas II- lead Russia in WWI but was overthrown in 1917

  • Lenin

    • Marxist/Communist
    • Bolsheviks- socialist party
    • Gained control of the Russian government
  • Western nations sided with the non-communist

  • Soviet Union= Communist Russia



Joseph Stalin

  • Became communist dictator of Russia

  • Five Year Plan

    • Sought to increase industrialization in the USSR
    • State owned farms and starvation
  • Purge

    • Stalin eliminated those he saw as a threat; some killed some sent to prisons
    • Murdered millions of his own people




Effects of the Revolution

  • End of the Romanov Dynasty transferring power to the lower classes

  • Urbanization and technology

  • Mistrust between the Russia and the west

  • Later led to the Cold War after WWII



Totalitarian v. Authoritarian Governments

  • Democracy does not exist in either

  • Authoritarian

    • Only interested in political power
    • Conservatives who want to preserve traditional way of life
    • Expects people to accept government policies and carry on with their lives
  • Totalitarian

    • Government seeks to control politics, economy, culture, and social life
    • Terror and fear used to force citizens


Italy

  • Fascism

    • Nationalistic movement that is anti-democratic and anti-communist
    • Rules by intimidation
  • Benito Mussolini

    • Used violence to settle unrest
    • Became dictator of Italy after gaining support from the middle class
    • Repressive government


Adolf Hitler

  • Took control of Germany with the Nazi Party

  • Rose in power through Nationalism and promised of rebuilding

  • “Third Reich”

  • Began militarily expanding

    • Empire building
    • Appeasement
  • Anti-Semitism-hatred of the Jewish people

    • “Final Solution”-called for the total elimination of the Jewish people
    • The Holocaust




Japan

  • Emperor Hirohito

    • Did not have complete control of Japanese government
    • Militarily controlled
  • Hideki Tojo

    • Japan’s premier and led Japan through WWII


Leading to War

  • Hitler’s invasion on the Rhineland, Austria, and the Sudetenland

  • Japan expanding in the Pacific and into China

  • Axis Powers

    • Germany
    • Italy
    • Japan


WWII

  • Hitler invades Poland

  • Britain and France enter the war

  • Hitler takes over France

  • Battle of Britain

    • Thousands of German planes bomb Britain
    • Winston Churchill- British prime minister
    • Britain holds on




US Involvement

  • US had remain neutral until December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor

    • US declares war
  • Allies

    • United States
    • Britain
    • Soviet Union/Russia
  • Hitler invades Soviet Union





Strategy

  • Stalin wanted US and Britain to open the western front of Europe to help him out

  • Churchill and Roosevelt decided to attack Germany in Africa, Italy, and then the Western European Front

  • Tehran Conference

    • Allies agree to invade Europe
    • D-day
    • Significance: Paved way for Western European invasion that would end the war
  • France is won back



Yalta Conference

  • “Big Three”

    • Roosevelt/Truman (US)
    • Churchill (Britain)
    • Stalin (USSR)
  • Yalta Conference

    • After German defeat USSR would help with Japan
    • Eastern European countries to get elections
    • USSR gets land in Poland and some in China
    • USSR gets most reparations because they were the hardest hit
    • Germany divided into four zones after the war (US, Britain, France, USSR)
  • Significance: Laid out post-WWII Europe between the west and the communist



Potsdam Conference

  • War in Europe ended May 1945

  • Potsdam

    • Truman meets with Stalin and Churchill
    • Unconditional Surrender of Japan
    • Significance: led to the decision of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • War on both fronts were finally ended

  • Use of the atomic bombs led to the nuclear arms race between the US and the USSR

    • Hydrogen bomb created




Post WWII

  • Cold War

    • Tension b/w the US and USSR that many feared would lead to nuclear war
  • Marshall Plan

    • Money given to help Western Europe’s economy and help rebuild countries
  • Post War Japan

    • Created democratic government ad helped rebuild
    • Today a modern, industrial, and wealthy nation
  • United Nations

    • Organization of different countries to find peaceful solutions to problems
    • Permanent Members: US, Britain, France, Russia, China


Indian Independence

  • Decolonization

  • India was under control of Britain

  • Mohandas Gandhi

    • Leader of the Indian Independence Movement
    • Supported non-violent protests even through beatings by the British
    • Unity b/w Hindus and Muslim Indians
  • Gained independence but not religious peace

  • Pakistan created as a Muslim state

  • Gandhi was assassinated but inspired many



China’s Communist Revolution

  • Nationalists v. Communists

  • Mao Zedong

    • Communist leader who gained control of China
    • USSR supported




Israel

  • Zionism- Jewish nationalism increased after the Holocaust

  • 1948 Israel created for Jewish people

  • Arabs upset because part of Palistine was taken

  • Wars have broken out and still tension



Latin America

  • US was backing governments in Latin America that nationalists did not support

  • Latin American nationalism associated itself more with the Soviet Union

  • Cuba (Castro), Chile (Salvador Allende), Nicaragua (Sandinistas), Mexican attempt (Zapatistas)

  • US backed anti-communist takeovers

  • Today’s anti-US Latin American governments

    • Venezuela and Hugo Chavez
    • Bolivia and Juan Evo Morales Ayma


Southeast Asia

  • Decolonizing after WWII

  • Many of the countries experienced unrest

  • Vietnamese Nationalist led by Ho Chi Minh fought the French and the US

    • Communist nationalist won in the end




Africa

  • African nationalism also came about after decolonization

  • Several African countries gained independence

  • South Africa

    • Apartheid- official policy of racial segregation in South Africa
    • Nelson Mandela- arrested for his leadership for 27 years but 1994 was elected president
    • 1994 South African elections where black population was allowed to participate




Middle East

  • Arab National arose after the founding of Israel

  • Abdul Nassar became president of Egypt and united Arabs in standing against the west and supporting Palestine



Ethnic Conflicts

  • African tribes fighting one another

  • Kurds, Persians, Arabs, and Jews fighting in the Middle East

  • Eastern Europe

    • Serbs, Bosnians, and Croats fighting
    • Serbians conquered Bosnia and began ethnic cleansing killing many Bosnians
    • NATO helped to maintain peace


Terrorism

  • Terrorism

    • Use of violence against innocent people in the name of a cause
  • Al-Qaeda

    • Largest and most active terrorist group
    • Led by Osama bin Laden
    • Sept. 11, 2001
    • War on Terror- invasion into Afghanistan
  • How does this affect us today?





Globalization

  • Globalization- worldwide interdependence

  • United Nations

    • Allows representatives to negotiate peacefully, provide aid, and back military forces to maintain stability
  • World Trade Organization

    • Monitors countries making sure they stick to international trade agreements
  • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

    • Several oil producing nations that control the cost and supply of oil


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