Week 6 Music of India, China, Japan, and Korea Gamelan Tutorials




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TitleWeek 6 Music of India, China, Japan, and Korea Gamelan Tutorials
Date31.07.2013
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Week 6

  • Music of India, China, Japan, and Korea

  • Gamelan

  • Tutorials


Indian Music

  • Vedic Period (2nd Millenium BC- 2 cent AD – chanting

  • Classical Period (C2-13) – divided the ragas into male/female and alloted them fixed times and moods (rasas).

  • Medieval (C13-16) – distinction between North and South appears

  • Modern (C16 onwards) recognisable as applying to modern practice.



General Characteristics

  • The emphasis on plucked strings is like W. Asia, though the virtuoso drumming is unique.

  • Great Tradition to qualify for which the music must be:

  • 1. Governed by a authentic doctrine.

  • 2. Learned through an authentic aural tradition.

  • The formal term for classical music is `sastriya-sangrit’ (scientific music), but it is commonly known as `ragdar’, I.e. based on raga.



North and South India

  • Hindustani (Northern provinces, inc. Pakistan, Bangladesh)

  • Carnatic (Southern peninsula)

  • Both use drones and have three melodic roles.

  • 1. Main melody (either sung, or played on a plucked string or reed instrument).

  • Optional accompanying melody (either played on a bowed string instrument if with a voice, or a reed instrument)

  • Independent percussion.

  • Both North and South use raga and tala



Fixed Forms in Indian Music

  • Drupad (vocal) - Alap, Nom-tom Alap, DRUPAD, INPROVISATION

  • Gat (instrumental) – Alap, Jor, Jhala, GAT (slow), IMPROVISATION, GAT (Fast), IMPROVISATION.

  • Khayal – KHYAL CHIZ (slow), ALAP, IMPROVISATION, KHYAL CHIZ (fast), IMPROVISATION



Indian Terms

  • Alap is the improvisatory prelude with drone that explores the notes of the raga.

  • Jor (= Nom-tom alap in vocal music) explores higher tetrachords, and becomes more rhythmic as it progresses.

  • Jhala – pulsating tonic, constant stroking of drone strings, climax in anticipation of entry of drummer.



Classical Indian Instruments

  • Vina – Ancient long-necked lute, with 4 strings tuned in 4th/5ths, 24 fixed frets, wooded bowl.

  • Bin (N) – Stick Zither, like vina, with 2 gourds.

  • Sitar (N) – Long-necked lute, with 3-7 strings, moveable frets and 12-13 sympathetic strings.

  • Sarod – 6 gut strings, plucked or bowed, no frets, 12 SS

  • Tambura – Long-necked lute, 4 strings used for drone only.

  • Saragi – fiddle with no frets, 3 strings and SS

  • Dilruba – fiddle with frets, 3/4/strikngs and SS



Chinese Periods

  • Formative – C3 B.C. to C4 AD. Earliest artificates – ocarinas, theoretical writings . 1, M=Origin myths, 2. Theoretical writings, 3. Instruments pf court, 4. Relationship of music to court life in Chou and Han dynasties (3rd Century B.C. to 220 AD).

  • Pipes basis for elaborate tone system – pitch uniformity crucial for good government.

  • Chinese LU system – cyclic set of pitches from tubes whose lengths were mathematically proportioned – giving basic Chinese scale. 5-tone scale with two changing tones.



General Points

  • Chinese music part of natural philosophy.

  • System of ordering musical instruments by 8 sounds – earth, stone, metal, skin, wood, bamboo, gourds, silk.

  • Instruments used then – Ch’in, P’ipa, Sheng, still in use today.



International Period – 5th to 10th century

  • Sui and Tang dynasties – new instruments – sets of hanging bells and iron slabs.

  • Chordophones (played by professional female musicians) – P’ipa, moon guitar, hu ch’in (2 string fiddle from Mongolia) and San hsien.

  • Centre of music shifted from Confusian rites to public stage and homes of wealthy.



National Period – 10th – 19th Centuries

  • Sung dynasty (960 – 1279) new stability – development of language, poetry and drama.

  • Mongols invaded 1279 – development of exclusive repertoires for particular instruments. Good forms of instrumental notation.

  • Chang dynasty (1644-1911) saw development of Peking Opera – addition of zither – (dulcimer developed from West)

  • Since Cultural Revolution there has been both a loss of tradition and an attempt to revive and rediscover ancient traditions.



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