Chapter 6 The Internet Chapter Contents




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Chapter 6 The Internet


Chapter Contents

  • Section A: Internet Technology

  • Section B: Fixed Internet Access

  • Section C: Portable and Mobile Internet Access

  • Section D: Internet Services

  • Section E: Internet Security



FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False

  • 060100 NAPs such as Earthlink and Comcast offer dial-up and cable Internet access.

  • 060200 TCP, IP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP are examples of protocols used on the Internet.

  • 060300 204.127.129.100 is an example of an IP address.

  • 060400 .edu and .ca are examples of top-level domains.

  • 060500 The Domain Name System stores IP addresses and their equivalent domain names.



FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False

  • 060600 Utilities such as Ping and Traceroute help you gauge the speed of your Internet connection.

  • 060700 10 Mbps is a narrowband Internet connection.

  • 060800 Dial-up and DSL provide Internet access using telephone cabling.

  • 060900 Cable Internet service is fast because it has lots of latency.

  • 061000 WiMAX uses low-earth orbiting satellites to transport data to the Internet.



FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False

  • 061100 Public Wi-Fi hotspots provide mobile Internet access.

  • 061200 With mobile broadband, you can use a cell phone to set up a mobile Internet connection.

  • 061300 Cloud computing uses distributed grid computing to predict weather.

  • 061400 VoIP uses circuit switching technology to send analog data.

  • 061500 SETI@home is a popular Wi-Fi service provider for non-business consumers.



FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False

  • 061600 FTP makes it easy to anonymously use a search engine.

  • 061700 BitTorrent is an Internet security protocol.

  • 061800 Consumers should use port probes to encrypt data sent over the Internet.

  • 061900 NATs are used by hackers to intercept packets traveling over the Internet.



Section A: Internet Technology

  • Background

  • Internet Infrastructure

  • Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains

  • Connection Speed



Question

  • 062100 One reason the Internet works is because TCP/IP offers a global addressing standard. Which one of the following is accurate in the context of Internet addresses?

    • A. IPv6 addresses such as 204.127.129.1 are dedicated to educational institutions.
    • B. Top level domains like EarthLink or AOL are adequate for most consumers.
    • C. A domain name, such as amazon.com corresponds to a unique IP address.
    • D. A dynamic IP address begins with www.


Background

  • The ARPANET, created in 1969, connected computers at UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, University of Utah, and University of California at Santa Barbara

  • Early Internet pioneers used primitive command-line user interfaces to send e-mail, transfer files, and run scientific calculations on Internet supercomputers

  • With an estimated 500 million nodes and more than 2 billion users, the Internet is huge



Internet Infrastructure

  • The Internet is not owned or operated by any single corporation or government

  • The Internet backbone is a network of high-capacity communications links that provides the main routes for data traffic across the Internet

  • Backbone links and routers are maintained by network service providers (NSPs)

  • NSP equipment and links are tied together by network access points (NAPs)

  • An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that offers Internet access to individuals, businesses, and smaller ISPs



Internet Infrastructure



Internet Infrastructure

  • To communicate with an ISP, your computer uses some type of communications device, such as a modem



Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains

  • A computer can have a permanently assigned static IP address or a temporarily assigned dynamic IP address



Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains

  • A domain name is a key component of Web page addresses and e-mail addresses



Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains



Internet Protocols, Addresses, and Domains



Connection Speed

  • Data travels over the Internet at an incredible speed

  • The elapsed time for data to make a round trip from point A to point B and back to point A is referred to as latency

    • Ping
    • Traceroute
  • Upstream vs. downstream speed



Connection Speed



Connection Speed

  • When upstream speeds differ from downstream speeds, you have an asymmetric Internet connection

  • When upstream and downstream speeds are the same, you have a symmetric Internet connection

  • Internet connection options

    • Fixed Internet access
    • Portable Internet access
    • Mobile Internet access


Connection Speed



Section B: Fixed Internet Access

  • Dial-up Connections

  • DSL

  • Cable Internet Service

  • Satellite Internet Service

  • Fixed Wireless Service

  • Fixed Internet Connection Roundup



Question

  • 062200 Although ISPs offer Internet access though dial-up, satellites, WiMAX, and DSL, cable Internet is currently the preferred access method. Why?

    • A. It is the least expensive.
    • B. It is the fastest and most widely available technology.
    • C. It has the highest latency.
    • D. It was the original Internet access technology.


Dial-up Connections

  • A dial-up connection is a fixed Internet connection that uses a voiceband modem and telephone lines to transport data between your computer and your ISP



Dial-up Connections

  • A voiceband modem converts the signals from your computer into audible analog signals that can travel over telephone lines

  • Modem speed is measured in bits per second



DSL

  • DSL is a high-speed, digital, always-on Internet access technology that runs over standard phone lines

  • The speed of a DSL connection varies

    • DSL modem
    • DSL filter


DSL



Cable Internet Service

  • Cable Internet service distributes always-on, broadband Internet access over the same infrastructure that offers cable television service



Cable Internet Service

  • Cable modems convert your computer’s signal into one that can travel over the CATV network

  • Always-on connection

  • DOCSIS-compliant cable modems



Satellite Internet Service

  • Satellite Internet service distributes always-on, high-speed asymmetric Internet access by broadcasting signals to and from a personal satellite dish

  • A satellite modem is a device that modulates data signals from a computer into a frequency band that can be carried to the satellite dish where it is converted to another frequency, amplified, and transmitted



Fixed Wireless Service

  • Fixed wireless Internet service broadcasts signals in order to offer Internet access to large areas

    • WiMAX
    • A WiMAX system transmits data to and from WiMAX antennas mounted on towers
    • Under ideal conditions, WiMAX can transmit data at 70 Mbps


Fixed Internet Connection Roundup



Section C: Portable and Mobile Internet Access

  • Internet to Go

  • Wi-Fi Hotspots

  • Portable and Mobile WiMAX

  • Portable Satellite Service

  • Cellular Data Service



Question

  • 062300 What is the difference between portable Internet access and mobile Internet access?

    • A. With portable access you cannot work online while moving very far.
    • B. Mobile access is less expensive than portable access.
    • C. Portable access requires cables, whereas mobile access does not.
    • D. Portable access requires a cell phone, whereas mobile access requires a notebook computer.


Internet To Go

  • Portable Internet access can be defined as the ability to easily move your Internet service from one location to another

  • Mobile Internet access offers a continuous Internet connection as you are walking or riding in a bus, car, train, or plane



Wi-Fi Hotspots

  • A Wi-Fi hotspot is an area in which the public can access a Wi-Fi network that offers Internet service

  • Wi-Fi does not typically provide acceptable mobile Internet access because you can only remain connected within range of the network’s hotspot



Portable and Mobile WiMAX

  • WiMAX can be used as a portable technology because Internet access is available to subscribers anywhere within a tower’s coverage area

  • You use the same Internet service provider whether you are at home or on the road

  • Mobile WiMAX



Portable Satellite Service



Cellular Data Services

  • Using cell phone technology to access the Internet offers mobility that is not yet possible with most of today’s wired or wireless computer network technologies



Cellular Data Services

  • The 3G cellular technologies for Internet access are EDGE, EV-DO, and HSUPA

  • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a communications protocol that provides Internet access from handheld devices

  • For the real Internet, cellular service providers offer data services, sometimes referred to as mobile broadband

  • Most cellular service providers offer wireless modems for broadband data access



Cellular Data Services

  • MiFi is a brand name for a compact, mobile, wireless router offered by Novatel Wireless

  • Some cell phones, such as the Droid X and iPhone, can act as a Wi-Fi hotspot by becoming the router for a wireless network



Section D: Internet Services

  • Cloud Computing

  • Real-Time Messaging

  • Voice over IP

  • Forums, Wikis, Blogs, and Tweets

  • Grid Computing

  • FTP

  • File Sharing Networks



Question

  • 062400 On the Internet, application protocols provide consumers with many useful services. Which one of the following correctly describes an Internet-based application protocol?

    • A. Chat and Instant messaging use Internet VoIP protocol.
    • B. Files can be shared over the Internet using FTP or BitTorrent protocols.
    • C. Cloud protocols such as SETI control distributed processing grids.
    • D. P2P is used to encrypt personal information to keep it private.


Cloud Computing

  • Cloud computing depends on a grid of servers, storage devices, and protocols that offer Internet-accessible computing services ranging from consumer-level media sharing to office productivity applications and complex corporate data processing

    • Software as a Service (SaaS)


Cloud Computing



Real-Time Messaging

  • A networked-based, real-time messaging system allows people to exchange short messages while they are online

    • Instant messaging (IM)
    • Chat


Voice over IP

  • VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) or Voice over IP, is a technology in which a broadband Internet connection is used to place telephone calls instead of the regular phone system

  • If you want to set up free computer-to-computer VoIP, you and the people you communicate with can download and install freeware or open source VoIP clients



Forums, Wikis, Blogs, and Tweets

  • An Internet forum is a Web-based online discussion site where participants post comments to discussion threads

  • A wiki allows participants to modify material

  • A blog (short for Web log) is similar to an online diary; it is maintained by one person and contains a series of entries on one or more topics

  • A tweet is a short message of 140 characters or less, posted to the Twitter Web site



Forums, Wikis, Blogs, and Tweets



Grid Computing

  • A grid computing system is a network of computers harnessed together to perform processing tasks

    • SETI@home project


FTP



FTP



File Sharing Networks

  • File sharing, sometimes called P2P file sharing, allows users to obtain files from other users located anywhere on the Internet

  • BitTorrent is a file sharing protocol that distributes the role of file server across a collection of dispersed computers



Section E: Internet Security

  • Intrusion Attempts

  • Securing Ports

  • NAT

  • Virtual Private Networks



Question

  • 062500 Securing your computer from Internet-based intrusions is an important aspect of computer security. Which one of the following is NOT a useful security technique?

    • A. Setting up NAT on a router
    • B. Activating firewall software
    • C. Checking the status of software ports
    • D. Activating your computer’s file sharing options


Intrusion Attempts

  • An intrusion is any access to data or programs by hackers, criminals, or other unauthorized persons

  • A communications port is the doorway that allows a computer to exchange data with other devices

  • A port probe (or port scan) uses automated software to locate computers that have open ports and are vulnerable to unauthorized access



Intrusion Attempts



Securing Ports



Securing Ports

  • A firewall is software or hardware designed to filter out suspicious packets attempting to enter or leave a computer

  • Sharing printers or files on a LAN or the Internet requires open ports so the data can be transferred to and from your computer



NAT

  • Routers are intended to work on LANs to monitor and direct packets being transported from one device to another

  • A routable IP address is one that can be accessed by packets on the Internet

  • A private IP address is a non-routable IP address that can be used within a LAN, but not for Internet data transport



NAT



NAT

  • Network address translation (NAT) is the process your router uses to keep track of packets and their corresponding private or public IP addresses



Virtual Private Networks

  • It is possible to secure remote connections by setting up virtual private network (VPN) access to a remote access server in the corporate office

  • Access to a VPN is usually by invitation only; employees who need to access a VPN are given the necessary instructions, addresses, and passwords to make connections



Virtual Private Networks



What Do You Think?

  • 063100 Does it seem plausible that your government would attempt to shut down the Internet to curtail civil unrest?

    • A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
  • 063200 Do you use the Internet to access political news?

    • A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
  • 063300 Should your government have legal power to shut down the Internet?

    • A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
  • 063400 Have you experienced an Internet outage that lasted longer than 24 hours?

    • A. Yes B. No C. Not sure


Chapter 6 Complete



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