Tujuan pembelajaran




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TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN



Business Communication Reports, Letters & Email

Courtesy of : Gurudutt R. Kamath

Writing Skill Dalam Business Communications

  • “Writing-the art of communicating thought to the mind- is the great invention in the work great, very great. It enabling us to converce with the dead, the absent, and the unborn, at all distances of time and space, and great not only in its direct benefits, but its great help to all other inventions”.-Abraham Lincoln.

  • Courtesy of : http://komunikasidalambisnis.blogspot.com/2008/06/writing-skill-dalam-business.html



How We Communicate3

  • CVs, Resumes

  • Email, Web site, FAQs

  • Letters, Newsletters, Brochures, Articles, Catalogs

  • Advertisements, Notice Board, Pamphlets, Signs, Press Release

  • Presentations, multimedia, talks

  • Reports, Manuals, Proposals, Books



Which Reports?



Technical Writing Reports

  • Proposals

  • User Manuals

  • Technical Manuals

  • White Papers



Classification of Reports

  • Formal Reports and Informal Reports

  • Information Reports

  • Analytical Reports

  • Recommendation Reports



5 Steps to Report Writing1

  • Define the problem

  • Gather the necessary information

  • Analyze the information

  • Organize the information

  • Write the report



Organizing Reports

  • Comparison/contrast

  • Problem-solution

  • Elimination of alternatives

  • General to particular

  • Geographic or spatial

  • Functional

  • Chronological



Words, Words, Words

  • UK English and US English

    • International English and Indian English
  • Denotation and Connotation

    • Let me know when you’re free next week for a meeting.
    • Could you let me know what times you have free?
  • Tone

    • Terry is hung up on trivial details.
    • Terry is meticulous and takes care of details that others sometimes ignore.


Writing Style

  • Brief writing style

    • Omit needless words
    • Combine sentences
    • Rewrite
    • Campus Jewelers’ main objective is to increase sales. Specifically, the objective is to double sales in the next five years by becoming a more successful business.
    • Campus Jewelers’ objective is to double sales in the next five years.


We do IT in Style!

  • Chicago Manual of Style

  • Elements of Style by Strunk & White

  • Dictionary

  • Microsoft Manual of Style

  • AMA Style Guide



Anatomy of a Report

  • Cover Page

  • Title Page

  • Letter of Transmittal

  • Table of Contents

  • List of Illustrations

  • Executive Summary

  • Report Body

  • Appendices



Report Body

  • Introduction

    • Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods
  • Background/History of the Problem

  • Body

    • Presents and interprets data
  • Conclusions and Recommendations

  • References or Works Cited

  • Appendixes

    • Interview transcripts, questionnaires, question tallies, printouts, and previous reports


Letter of Transmittal

  • Background

  • Summarize conclusions and recommendations

  • Minor problems. Thank those who helped.

  • Additional research necessary

  • Thank the reader. Offer to answer questions.



Sales Proposal2

  • Budget

  • Objectives

  • Strategy and Tactics

  • Schedule

  • Results

  • Closing



Document Design

  • Use no more than 5 fonts.

  • Use no more than 5 colors.

  • Use glossy paper.

  • Use white space.

  • Use templates.

  • Use parallelism.

  • Avoid double emphasis.



Future Reports

Proposals
  • 250-page reports

  • 90-minute oral presentation

  • 50-page summary

Reports
  • Multi-media

  • Web



FAQ and CE

  • Questions

    • You, We, I – personal pronouns
    • Standards for reports
    • How long?
  • Common Errors

    • It’s a common error! Its consequences are great!
    • Singular & Plural errors.
    • Neutrality (he/she, John)


Business Communication Letters & Emails

Gurudutt R. Kamath

Correspondence Costs Money1

  • Dartnell Institute, 10-minute message

    • $13.60
    • $20.52
  • Plan, compose, revise 1-page letter

    • 54 minutes
  • Average Proposal (engg firm)

    • $500,000
    • $1,000,000

Rwitgin wastes time and damages relationships.

Making Messages Effective

Clear

Complete

Correct

Save reader’s time

Build good will

Complaint Letters

  • Nursery – Plants worth $572

  • Dry and wilted. One came out by the roots when I took it out of the box.

  • Please send me a replacement shipment immediately



Response 1

After ruling out problems in transit, I discovered that your order was packed by a new worker who didn’t understand the need to water plants thoroughly before they are shipped. We have fired the worker, so you can be assured that this will not happen again.

Although it will cost our company several hundred dollars, we will send you a replacement shipment.

Let me know if the new shipment arrives safely. We trust that you will not complain again.

Response 2

Sorry we screwed up that order. Sending plants across country is a risky business. Some of them just can’t take the strain. (Some days I can’t take the strain myself!) We’ll credit your account for $572.

Response 3

…it isn’t our fault. The box clearly says “Open and water immediately.” …If you pull by the leaves, you will pull the roots out. Always lift by the stem. Since you don’t know how to handle plants, I’m sending you a copy of our brochure, “How to Care for Your Plants.” Please read it carefully… …to avoid disappointments in the future.

We look forward to your future orders.

Response 4

Your letter of the 5th has come to the attention of the undersigned.

According to your letter, your invoice #47420 arrived in unsatisfactory condition. Please be advised that it is our policy to make adjustments as per the Terms and Conditions…

“…make an exception on your order receipt…furnish us detailed written information as to any damage.”

… you must comply with our terms and see that the necessary documents reach the undersigned by the close of the business day on the 20th of the month.

Response 5

You’ll get a replacement shipment of the perennials you ordered next week.

Your plants are watered carefully before shipment and packed in specially designed cardboard containers. But if the weather is unusually warm, or if the truck is delayed, small roots may dry out. Perhaps, this happened with your plants.

The violas, diitalis, aquilegias and hostas you ordered are long-blooming perennials that will get even prettier each year. Enjoy your garden.

PAIBOC

Purpose

Audiences

Information

Benefits

Objections

Context

Audience

  • Writer

  • Initial audience

  • Gatekeeper

  • Primary audience

  • Secondary audience

  • Watchdog audience



Communicate across Cultures

  • Gender

  • Race and ethnicity

  • Regional and national origin

  • Social class

  • Religion

  • Age

  • Sexual orientation

  • Physical ability



Bias-free Communication

  • Managers and their wives will…

  • Managers and their spouses will…

  • Manpower – Personnel

  • Manhours – Hours or working hours

  • Manning – Staffing

  • Workman – Worker, employee, writer

  • Chairman – Chair, chairperson



Bias-free Communication

  • Plural nouns and pronouns

    • Supervisors must…their departments.
  • Use you.

    • You must work for your deparment.
  • Substitute with article or revise sentence

    • Supervisor...time sheet for the department.
    • The nurse will fill out the accident report.


Pictures



Letter Contents

  • Reference, Date, Address, Salutation, Subject (B/A), Body, Complimentary Close, Enclosures

  • Dear Glenn: or Dear Mr Helms:

  • Sincerely, and Cordially,

  • Open (Dear Glenn) and Closed (Dear Glenn:)

  • Second Page – Reader’s Name, Date, Page Number



Formats for Letters and Memos

  • Open and closed punctuation

    • Full stops at end of addresses
    • Full stops in abbreviations (am/pm)
  • Block and Modified Block

    • Date and Signature
    • Subject Line – Optional and Rare


Meeting Agenda

  • Time and place

  • Whether each item is presented for information, for discussion, or for a decision



Minutes of the Meeting

  • Decisions Reached

  • Action Items

  • Open Issues



Emails

  • Minutes a day - average worker?

  • 49 minutes

  • Hours a day - top managers?

  • 4 hours

  • Formats are still evolving

  • What % felt misunderstood (2000)?

  • 51% (tone)



Subject

  • Be specific, concise, and catchy.

    • 28 characters
    • Will Attend 3 pm Meeting EOM
    • Travel Plans for Sales Meeting
    • Your Funding Request Approved
    • ASAP, BTW, FYI, IMHO
    • Smileys


Body of the Email

  • Brief

  • Important points at the top

  • Bullets and numbering

  • Emphasize (NOT)

  • HTML (letterhead)

  • All rules of good writing



Mailing Lists

  • Your boss could be reading!

  • Posts are archived.

  • Avoid using company email address.

  • Avoid conversations (one liners).

  • Do not rush to lists.



Netiquette

  • Never flame.

  • Use FULL CAPS only to emphasize a word or two.

  • Send messages on a need basis.

  • Recipient’s work practice (one long or several short messages)

  • Quote briefly (B/A) while replying.

  • Attachments



Covering Letters

  • Brief

    • 3 paragraphs, bullets
  • Focus on

    • Major requirements
    • Differentiators
  • Research

    • Web, friends, colleagues


Resumé or Curriculum Vitae

  • Name, Address, Contact Details

  • Objective, Education, Experience, Languages, Personal, References

    • Reverse chronological order
  • Personal details – Age, marital status, children (US laws on discrimination)



Resumé Tips

  • Two pages maximum.

    • Less important details on 2nd page.
  • Highlight strengths, not weaknesses.

    • Job hoppers -- period
  • Create for each company.

  • Use templates – but enhance them.



References

  • Business Communication, Kity O Locker and Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek, 2004

  • Better Business Writing, The Sunday Times, 2002

  • Model Business Letters, E-mails & Other Business Documents (sixth edition), Shirley Taylor



Profile of Gurudutt R. Kamath

Profile of Gurudutt R. Kamath

Gurudutt Kamath is a technical writer based in Mumbai with 20 years of experience writing user manuals and help files for software exporters. Earlier, he was a journalist/editor for 5 years and wrote nearly a 1000 articles. He is an MA in English Literature and has Diplomas in Journalism and Book Publishing from Bhavan's. He began his career with Citicorp Software. He has carried out projects onsite in USA, Dubai, and Hong Kong.  He has attended conferences/training in UK, USA, Hong Kong, and Singapore. 

 

He wrote the DocuMentor column in IT People/Express Computer in 2002-2003.  He has contributed two articles for Intercom and was a panelist under Nancy Hoft for the special issue on Internationalization in the Technical Communications Journal. The article on Internationalization was used as a part of the syllabus in Washington University. He has contributed articles to INDUS, the award-winning STC India newsletter.   He has conducted several technical writing and tools workshops. He was a Guest Faculty at National Institute of Design-Ahmedabad, Indian Institute of Technology-Mumbai, and Department of Journalism-Pune. He has given talks on technical writing in forums such as TWIN, STC India, IEEE, management institutes, engineering colleges, colleges, computer institutes, and Rotary clubs.  He was a mentor for a US University. 

documentor@vsnl.com 

Writing is urgent

  • Dalam dunia bisis, dan sebagai professional, writing atau menulis (pesan bisnis) merupakan hal sangat urgent. Karena, untuk menyampaikan ide-ide, atau laporan penting yang menuntut perhatian dan konsentrasi penuh dalam pemahaman maupun penganalisaan, komunikasi dalam bentuk tulisan diyakini paling efektif.

  • Logikanya, manakala komunikan kesulitan memahami pesan, dia bisa dengan mudah membaca kembali pesan yang disampaikan.



lanjutan

  • Menulis, dalam aktivitas komunikasi bisnis, sangatlah penting. Terlebih jika dikaitkan dengan beberapa survey yang dilakukan pelaku bisnis dunia dalam beberapa decade terakhir.

  • Sebuah survey majalah Fortune misalnya menunjukkan, para senior tax executive meyakini bawah writing skill adalah atribut penting dalam proses perekrutan.



Beberapa alasan mengapa writing penting dalam komunikasi bisnis

  • Kemampuan mendengar manusia terbatas. Lebih rendah daripada kemampuan menerima /mencerna pesan lewat bahasa tulisan. Berbagai riset menunjukkan, kemampuan telinga manusia menangkap pesan lebih rendah ketimbang indera lainnya.



Lanjutan

  • Pesan dalam bisnis tidak selalu sederhana. Bahkan lebih banyak yang memerlukan pemahaman dan penganalisaan maksimal. Mulai dari business report, proposal, hasil meeting, perjanjian atau kontrak kerja,research memo, sampai annual report.



Lanjutan

  • Beberapa pesan bisnis, wajib didokumentasikan. Pendokumentasian akan lebih mudah kalau informasi disampaikan dalam bentuk komunikasi writing.



Satu dari tujuh skill Pebisnis

  • Survey serupa yang dilakukan periset Southern Utah University terhadap 90.000 anggota akuntan ternama Amerika Serikat membuktikan bahwa kemampuan menulis yang baik adalah salah satu dari tujuh skill yang wajib dimiliki oleh para pelaku bisnis termasuk para akuntan. Luar biasanya, ke enam skill lainnya, ternyata berhubungan erat dengan communication skill, yakni :



Lanjutan

  • Mendengar dengan efektif

  • Membuat dokumen dengan ejaan dan kalimat yang tepat

  • Mengajukan pertanyaan yang tepat saat berhadapan dengan klieun

  • Mengorganisir informasi ke dalam kalimat dan paragraph

  • Menggunakan tata bahasa yang baik

  • Menggunakan vocabulary bisnis dengan benar



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Tujuan pembelajaran iconPengantar teknik industri ir. Moehamad Aman, mt yun Arifatul Fatimah, st., Mt tujuan

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